Tag Archives: soybeans

TOPEKA, Kan. — The Kansas Soybean Commission (KSC) is requesting research and education proposals for its fiscal year 2021, which begins July 1, 2020. Proposals are due Oct. 15, and an individual may be listed as the principal investigator or educator on only one. The commissioners will review ideas for breeding, production and environmental programs; animal- and human-nutrition or food-safety studies; commercially significant, value-added projects that will use large quantities of soybeans; and domestic or international marketing and transportation programs.

More information about KSC’s priorities, complete instructions and application forms are available at https://KansasSoybeans.org/forms on the web or by calling the Kansas Soybean office at 877-KS-SOYBEAN (877-577-6923). Proposers who gain preliminary approval from the commissioners will make formal presentations Dec. 5-7 in Topeka or via teleconferencing.

The three-day funding meeting will begin at 8 a.m. each day. The commissioners also will discuss current projects, market-development activities, educational programs and administrative items. To obtain a complete agenda or to suggest additional topics for deliberation, contact KSC Administrator Kenlon Johannes at johannes@kansassoybeans.org or at the office.

U.S. corn and soybean conditions held mostly steady last week, but both crops are still significantly behind the average pace in reaching maturity, according to USDA NASS’ latest Crop Progress report released Monday.

NASS estimated that, as of Sunday, Sept. 15, the U.S. corn crop was 55% in good-to-excellent condition, unchanged from the previous week. That’s still the lowest good-to-excellent rating for the crop at this time of year since 2013.

Only 18% of corn was estimated mature as of Sunday, according to NASS. Last year at this same time, half of the crop (51%) had reached maturity. The current maturity is also 21 percentage points behind the five-year average of 39%. That’s further behind average than in last Monday’s report, when maturity was 13 percentage points behind the five-year average.

Corn in the dough stage was estimated at 93%, 5 percentage points behind the five-year average of 98%. Corn dented was 68%, 19 percentage points behind the five-year average of 87%.

“Fifty percent or less of corn is dented in Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin and South Dakota,” said DTN Lead Analyst Todd Hultman.

In its first corn harvest report of the season, NASS estimated that 4% of the crop had been harvested as of Sunday, led by activity in North Carolina and Texas. That compares to last year’s 8% harvested and the five-year average of 7%.

While corn condition was unchanged last week, the condition of the nation’s soybean crop fell slightly from 55% good to excellent the previous week to 54% as of Sunday. As with corn, that remains the lowest good-to-excellent rating since 2013, Hultman said.

Soybeans setting pods reached 95% as of Sunday, behind both last year’s and the average pace of 100%. Soybeans dropping leaves was estimated at 15%, far behind last year when half of the crop had leaves dropping and 23 percentage points behind the five-year average of 38%.

Spring wheat harvest slowed last week, moving ahead only 5 percentage points from the previous week to reach 76% as of Sunday. That is 17 percentage points behind the five-year average of 93%. Montana remains the slowest to harvest, at 69% complete, Hultman noted.

Planting of next year’s winter wheat crop was estimated at 8% complete as of Sunday, according to NASS, slightly behind the average pace of 12%.

“The top three states getting early starts to planting winter wheat were Washington, Colorado and Nebraska,” Hultman said.

Sorghum coloring was estimated at 79%, behind the average of 84%. Sorghum mature was estimated at 34%, behind the average of 44%. Sorghum harvested was estimated at 24%, behind the five-year average of 27%. Barley harvested reached 87%, behind the average of 96%. Oats were 92% harvested, also behind the average of 97%.

Cotton bolls opening was estimated at 54%, ahead of the average of 47%. Cotton harvested was estimated at 9%, near the five-year average of 8%. Cotton condition — for the portion of the crop still in fields — was rated 41% good to excellent, down 2 percentage points from the previous week’s 43% good-to-excellent rating. Rice harvested was 46%, slightly behind the average of 48%.

To view weekly crop progress reports issued by National Ag Statistics Service offices in individual states, visit http://www.nass.usda.gov/…. Look for the U.S. map in the “Find Data and Reports by” section and choose the state you wish to view in the drop-down menu. Then look for that state’s “Crop Progress & Condition” report.

Clay Patton breaks down the report here: https://c1.futuripost.com/krvnam/playlist/futures-one-crop-progress-report-not-a-big-change-7645.html

National Crop Progress Summary
This Last Last 5-Year
Week Week Year Avg.
Corn Dough 93 89 99 98
Corn Dented 68 55 92 87
Corn Mature 18 11 51 39
Corn Harvested 4 NA 8 7
Soybeans Setting Pods 95 92 100 100
Soybeans Dropping Leaves 15 NA 50 38
Spring Wheat Harvested 76 71 96 93
Winter Wheat Planted 8 NA 12 12
Cotton Bolls Opening 54 43 48 47
Cotton Harvested 9 7 13 8
Sorghum Coloring 79 65 87 84
Sorghum Mature 34 27 40 44
Sorghum Harvested 24 22 26 27
Barley Harvested 87 82 95 96
Oats Harvested 92 89 96 97
Rice Harvested 46 30 48 48

**

National Crop Condition Summary
(VP = Very Poor; P = Poor; F = Fair; G = Good; E = Excellent)
This Week Last Week Last Year
VP P F G E VP P F G E VP P F G E
Corn 4 10 31 44 11 4 10 31 45 10 4 8 20 47 21
Soybeans 4 10 32 45 9 3 9 33 45 10 3 7 23 49 18
Cotton 3 14 42 34 7 3 15 39 37 6 8 24 29 30 9
Sorghum 1 6 28 51 14 1 5 26 53 15 5 12 30 44 9
Rice 1 5 25 47 22 1 5 25 46 23 4 22 58 16

**

National Soil Moisture Condition – 48 States
(VS = Very Short; SH = Short; AD = Adequate; SR = Surplus)
This Week Last Week Last Year
VS SH AD SR VS SH AD SR VS SH AD SR
Topsoil Moisture 11 22 55 12 10 23 61 6 9 19 63 9
Subsoil Moisture 9 22 59 10 8 22 64 6 11 20 61 8

Corn was rated 55% in good-to-excellent condition, down 3 percentage points from 58% the previous week, while soybean condition was also rated 55%, unchanged from the previous week, according to this week’s USDA NASS Crop Progress report.

Corn in the dough stage was 89%, corn dented was 55% and corn mature was 11%. Soybeans setting pods reached 92%.

To view weekly crop progress reports issued by National Ag Statistics Service offices in individual states, visit http://www.nass.usda.gov/…. Look for the U.S. map in the “Find Data and Reports by” section and choose the state you wish to view in the drop-down menu. Then look for that state’s “Crop Progress & Condition” report.

Clay Patton breaks down the report: https://c1-green.futuripost.com/krvnam/playlist/futures-one-crop-progress-report-corn-condition-drops-7600.html

National Crop Progress Summary
This Last Last 5-Year
Week Week Year Avg.
Corn Dough 89 81 99 97
Corn Dented 55 41 84 77
Corn Mature 11 6 33 24
Soybeans Setting Pods 92 86 100 99
Spring Wheat Harvested 71 55 92 87
Cotton Bolls Opening 43 36 38 37
Cotton Harvested 7 NA 9 6
Sorghum Headed 97 92 99 98
Sorghum Coloring 65 52 78 74
Sorghum Mature 27 24 33 37
Sorghum Harvested 22 21 24 24
Barley Harvested 82 72 91 92
Oats Harvested 89 84 96 95
Rice Harvested 30 21 39 37

**

National Crop Condition Summary
(VP = Very Poor; P = Poor; F = Fair; G = Good; E = Excellent)
This Week Last Week Last Year
VP P F G E VP P F G E VP P F G E
Corn 4 10 31 45 10 3 10 29 47 11 4 8 20 47 21
Soybeans 3 9 33 45 10 3 10 32 46 9 3 7 22 50 18
Cotton 3 15 39 37 6 1 14 37 39 9 13 21 28 29 9
Sorghum 1 5 26 53 15 1 5 27 53 14 5 12 30 42 11
Rice 1 5 25 46 23 1 4 25 47 23 3 22 59 16

**

National Soil Moisture Condition – 48 States
(VS = Very Short; SH = Short; AD = Adequate; SR = Surplus)
This Week Last Week Last Year
VS SH AD SR VS SH AD SR VS SH AD SR
Topsoil Moisture 10 23 61 6 9 22 62 7 9 19 58 14
Subsoil Moisture 8 22 64 6 7 22 65 6 10 23 58 9

 Corn was rated 57% in good-to-excellent condition, up 1 percentage point from 56% the previous week, and soybean condition was rated 55%, up 2 percentage points from 53% the previous week, according to this week’s USDA NASS Crop Progress report.

Corn in the dough stage was 71% and corn dented was 27%. Soybeans blooming were estimated at 94%, and soybeans setting pods reached 79%.

To view weekly crop progress reports issued by National Ag Statistics Service offices in individual states, visit http://www.nass.usda.gov/….

National Crop Progress Summary
This Last Last 5-Year
Week Week Year Avg.
Corn Dough 71 55 91 87
Corn Dented 27 15 59 46
Soybeans Blooming 94 90 100 99
Soybeans Setting Pods 79 68 94 91
Winter Wheat Harvested 96 93 100 99
Spring Wheat Harvested 38 16 75 65
Cotton Setting Bolls 90 85 90 91
Cotton Bolls Opening 28 24 20 19
Sorghum Headed 86 75 92 90
Sorghum Coloring 41 31 54 52
Sorghum Mature 22 21 26 30
Sorghum Harvested 20 NA 20 20
Barley Harvested 54 31 78 74
Oats Harvested 75 60 88 86
Rice Headed 96 88 98 97
Rice Harvested 15 10 19 18

**

National Crop Condition Summary
(VP = Very Poor; P = Poor; F = Fair; G = Good; E = Excellent)
This Week Last Week Last Year
VP P F G E VP P F G E VP P F G E
Corn 3 10 30 47 10 3 11 30 46 10 4 8 20 47 21
Soybeans 3 10 32 46 9 4 10 33 44 9 3 8 23 49 17
Spring Wheat 1 5 25 60 9 1 6 23 58 12 1 4 21 63 11
Cotton 2 15 40 35 8 2 13 36 41 8 13 18 25 33 11
Sorghum 1 6 27 51 15 1 6 28 52 13 5 12 30 44 9
Barley 1 4 19 61 15 2 5 20 58 15 1 3 18 65 13
Rice 1 5 25 48 21 1 5 26 46 22 4 21 60 15

**

National Soil Moisture Condition – 48 States
(VS = Very Short; SH = Short; AD = Adequate; SR = Surplus)
This Week Last Week Last Year
VS SH AD SR VS SH AD SR VS SH AD SR
Topsoil Moisture 9 23 61 7 10 26 58 6 12 24 59 5
Subsoil Moisture 8 22 64 6 8 24 62 6 13 26 57 4

China has officially announced it will impose an extra five percent tariff on U.S. soybeans starting on September 1. They’ll also add another 10 percent in duties on other major U.S. crops grown by many American soybean farmers.

The latest details come after China vowed last week that it will retaliate if the U.S. goes through with its original plan to increase tariffs on Chinese goods on September 1. ASA President Davie Stephens says, “ASA has strongly requested an end to the tariffs on U.S. beans for more than a year. This escalation will affect us not because of the increased tariff on our sales, which have been at a virtual standstill for months, but through time.” He says the longevity of the situation means worsening circumstances for soy growers who still have unsold product from this past season and new crops in the ground this season.

Stephens adds that “prospects are narrowing even more now for sales to China, a market that soy growers have valued, nurtured, and respected for many years.” ASA is asking both parties to step up and stop the tariffs and find a resolution that doesn’t target soy growers trapped in the middle. Real people, including Chinese citizens and the American public, along with our soybean growers, are the ones actually feeling the effects of the trade war.

Many producers like to estimate the yield potential of their soybeans well before reaching the end of the season. In contrast with corn, soybeans can easily compensate for abiotic (e.g., temperature, water) or biotic stresses (e.g., insects, diseases). The final number of pods is not determined near the end of the season (beginning of seed filling, R5 stage). For comparison, in corn, the final kernel number is attained during the 2-week period after flowering. Thus, when estimating soybean yield potential, we have to keep in mind that the estimate could change depending on the growth stage at the time the estimate is made and weather conditions. For example, wet periods toward the end of the reproductive period can extend the seed-set period, promoting greater pod production and retention, with larger seed size and heavier seed weight.

From a physiological perspective, the main yield driving forces are: 1) plants per acre, 2) pods per area, 3) seeds per pod, and 4) seed size. Estimating final yield in soybean before harvest can be a very tedious task, but a simplified method can be used for just a basic yield estimate.

When can I start making soybean yield estimates?

There is not a precise time, but as the crop approaches the end of the season (R6, full seed or R7, beginning of maturity) the yield estimate will be more accurate. Still, you can start making soybean yield estimates as soon as the end of the R4 stage, full pod (pods are ¾-inch long on one of the top four nodes), or at the onset of the R5 stage, beginning seed (seeds are 1/8-inch long on one of the top four nodes). Keep in mind that yield prediction is less precise at those early stages.

Is plant variability within the field an issue in soybeans?

Variability between plants relative to the final number of pods and seed size needs to be considered when trying to get an estimation of soybean yields. In addition, variability between areas within the same field needs also to be properly accounted for (e.g. low vs. high areas in the field). Make yield estimations in different areas of the field, at least 6 to 12 different areas. It is important to properly recognize and identify the variation within the field, and then take enough samples from the different areas to fairly represent the entire field. Within each sample section, take consecutive plants within the row to have a good representation.

Conventional approach to estimating soybean yields

In the conventional approach, soybean yield estimates are based on the following components:

  • Total number of pods per acre [number of plants per acre x pods per plant] (1)
  • Total number of seeds per pod (2)
  • Number of seeds per pound (3)
  • Total pounds per bushel, or test weight, which for soybeans is 60 lbs/bu (4)

 

The final equation for the estimation of the potential soybean yield is:

[(1) x (2) / (3)] / (4) = Soybean yield in bushels/acre

Simplified approach to estimating soybean yields

The main difference between the “conventional” and “simplified” approaches is that the conventional approach uses the total number of plants per acre in its calculation; while in the simplified approach, a constant row length is utilized to represent 1/10,000th area of an acre (Figure 1).

For the simplified approach, sample 21 inches of row length in a single row if the soybean plants are spaced in 30-inch rows; in 2 rows if the row spacing is 15 inches; and in 4 rows if the row spacing is 7.5 inches.

Figure 1. In the “simplified” approach to estimating yields, sample 21 inches of row length to equal 1/10,000th of an acre. The number of rows to sample will depend on the row spacing. With 30-inch row spacing, sample one row. With 15-inch row spacing, sample two rows. With 7.5-inch row spacing, sample four rows. Photo by Ignacio Ciampitti, K-State Research and Extension.

 

Repeat this procedure in different sections of the field to properly account for the natural field variability.

What are the driving forces of soybean yield?

1) Total number of pods per acre:

Count the total number of pods (Figure 2) within this constant row length. After counting all the plants within the 21-inch row sections that represent 1/10,000th of an acre, estimate a final pod number per acre. Use a similar procedure in different areas of the field to get a good overall estimate at the field scale. One good criterion is only to consider pod sizes that are larger than ¾ or 1 inch long. Smaller pods can be aborted from this time on in the growing season until harvest.

Figure 2. Total number of pods per plant (only consider the pod sizes larger than ¾ or 1 inch). Photo by Ignacio Ciampitti, K-State Research and Extension.

 

 

2) Total number of seeds per pod:

Soybean plants will have, on average, 2.5 seeds per pod (ranging from 1 to 4 seeds per pod), primarily regulated by the interaction between the environment and the genotypes (Figure 3). Under severe drought and heat stress, a pessimistic approach would be to consider an average of 1-1.5 seeds per pod. This value is just an approximation of the final number of seeds per pod, and can change from the time of estimation until the end of the growing season.

Figure 3. The number of seeds per pod will vary somewhat, depending on the growing environment and genotype. Photo by Ignacio Ciampitti, K-State Research and Extension.

3) Seed size:

Seed size can range from 2,500 (normal to large seed weight) to 3,500 (small seed size) seeds per pound. This season, conditions are mostly favorable in Kansas for promoting large seed sizes. In more stressful years, such as 2012 and 2011, seed size is normally smaller, meaning a larger number for the seeds per pound (e.g. 3,500 seeds per pound). In the simplified estimation approach published by Dr. Casteel, you do not need to actually measure the number of seeds per pound in order to estimate yields, as is done in the conventional approach. Instead, a seed size conversion factor is used. If the conditions are favorable and large seed size is expected, the conversion is 15 units; while if abiotic or biotic stresses are present during the seed-filling period, a seed size factor of 21 units is used. Further details related to the seed size factor can be found in the link to the Purdue University extension article listed at the end of this article.

 

Example of the simplified approach for estimating soybean yields:

Say that we have 120,000 plants/acre in a 30-inch row. Then, we should have around 12 plants in 21 inches of row. In those 12 plants, we have measured on average 22 pods per plant, with a total number of 264 pods (22 x 12).

If we assume a “normal” growing season condition, then the final seeds per pod will be around 2.5, and for the seed size factor, we can assume large seeds, and will use a conversion factor of 15 units.

Equation for a “Favorable” Season:

264 pods x 2.5 seeds per pod / 15 = 44 bushels per acre

For a “droughty” (late reproductive, from R2 to R6 stages) growing season, the final seed number and size will be dramatically affected. Thus, even if the pod number is the same as in a normal season, the yield calculation could be:

Equation for a “Drought” or Short Seed Filling Season:

264 pods x 1.5 seeds per pod / 21 = 19 bushels per acre

Basically, this “simplified approach” relates the total number of pods in a “known” unit area (easily extrapolated to the acre unit), and is affected by the total number of seeds in the pod. This is adjusted by the estimated seed weight, which is affected by two main components: duration of seed fill and rate of dry mass allocation to the seeds.